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Mathematics of Atoms (Paramanu) in Rudram Chamakam


The 11th Anuvaka of Sri Rudram Chamakam (चमकम्) describes complex mathematics behind formation of different molecules by combination different number of atoms.


Chamakam is a sanskrit hymn dedicated to Rudra (an epithet of Lord Siva), taken from the Yajurveda (Taittariya Samhita (TS) 4.5, 4.7).


This hymn is referred to in the Siva Purana and recitation of the Śatarudrīya is claimed, in the Jābala Upanishad, to lead to immortality.

Rudram chanting can be done with or without the accompaniment of a Vedic yagna ritual. When accompanied with the Vedic fire ritual, it is called the Rudra Yagnam. It is said that Lord Siva, after Bhasmasura was killed with the help of Lord Maha Vishnu, performed the Tandava Dance and then performed the “Rudra Yagna” for the betterment of humanity.

The place where first Rudra Yagna was performed is where the “Sri Kalahasti” Temple stands now; this temple also has one of the 5 (Pancha bhootha – Vayu, Agni, Jala, Akash, Prithvi) lingas called Vayu linga.


It consists of two texts from book four of the Taittiriya Samhita (TS 4.5, 4.7), which is a recension of the Krishna Yajurveda.

Sri Rudram or the Namakam (chapter five) describes the name or epithets of Rudra, which represent his aspects. Additionally, the devotee asks for the benevolent aspect of Siva to be invoked rather than the terrible aspect and requests forgiveness of sins. The Chamakam (chapter seven) asks for the fulfilment of wishes. Each part consist of eleven anuvaka or hymns. Traditionally Rudra is assigned the number 11, and among the thirty three deities of the Vedic pantheon, eleven are considered forms of Rudra.

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