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Mapping in ancient world: foreigners stated India as rectangular, Puranas as inverted triangle

Mapping needs measure of 3 quantity at keys points on globe - (a) Longitude, (b) Latitude, (c) Direction. These need observing Naksatra in space in Spherical polar coordinates.

Parilekha is a measure (Mapa), so it is Map. Uses Naksatra, so Naksha. Measurement of latitude is considered easiest, but that needs accurate southern declination of sun or any reference star. Longitude needs accurate measurement of time hence its method not known in Europe till 1480. Only after it was learnt from India via Turkey navy, Columbus could plan hid America visit. Actually, an old map was stolen from Turkey from Admiral Piri Reis, which showed Americans and Antarctica. Provisions were kept only for visit to America about 2500 km away, visit to India would have needed journey of 18000 km. Maps of India by Europeans till 1780 showed India as rectangular.

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